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Aquinas avoids the difficulties and contradictions of the "two substance " theory and, saving the personality, accounts for the observed facts of the unity of consciousness.
His doctrine : The particular creation of the soul is a corollary of the foregoing. 3 (in refutation of the opinion of Pythagoras, Plato and Origen — with whom Leibniz might be grouped as professing a modified form of the same opinion—the creation of souls at the beginning of time ).
It exists only as determined by a form; and if that form is not a human soul, then the "body" is not a human body.
It is in this sense that the Scholastic phrase "incomplete substance ", applied to body and soul alike, is to be understood. 4) and of Aristotle is not the only one that has been advanced.
In the general theory, neither "matter" nor "form", but only the composite, is a substance.
It is a logical definition, having reference to a metaphysical entity.Though strictly speaking self-contradictory, the phrase expresses in a convenient form the abiding reciprocity of relation between these two "principles of substantial being". In Greek and in modern philosophy, as well as during the Patristic and Scholastic periods, another celebrated theory laid claim to pre-eminence. It is in a non-natural state of union, and longs to be freed from its bodily prison (cf. Plato has recourse to a theory of a triple soul to explain the union—a theory that would seem to make personality altogether impossible (see MATTER). Augustine, following him (except as to the triple-soul theory) makes the "body" and " soul " two substances; and man "a rational soul using a mortal and earthly body" (De Moribus, I, xxvii).Man is an individual, a single substance resultant from the determination of matter by a human form. But he is careful to note that by union with the body it constitutes the human being. Augustine's psychological doctrine was current in the Middle Ages up to the time and during the perfecting of the Thomistic synthesis. As further instances of Augustinian influence may be cited Alanus ab Insulis (but the soul is united by a spiritus physicus to the body); Alexander of Hales (union ad modum formæ cum materia ); St.This becomes a "living soul " and fashioned to the "image of God " by the inspiration of the "breath of life", which makes man man and differentiates him from the brute. C Scholastic philosophy reaches a conclusion as to the origin of man similar to the teaching of revelation and theology. All things that are, except Himself, exist in virtue of a unique creative act.B This doctrine is obviously to be looked for in all Catholic theology. As to the mode of creation, there would seem to be two possible alternatives. 2, ad 2um), a succession of preparatory forms preceded information by the rational soul, it nevertheless follows necessarily from the established principles of Scholasticism that this, not only in the case of the first man, but of all men, must be produced in being by a special creative act.