Relative dating geologic events
The secondary rocks were thought to include interlayered basalts, which Werner thought formed by combustion of buried coal layers.
The Scottish geologist James Hutton (1726-1797) argued that granite and basalt by solidification within the earth (as opposed to precipitating in from oceanwater).
This idea is known as Plutonism, in reference to the God of the deep underworld.
Hutton viewed tilted strata as having been initially deposited horizontally, and then were subsequently deformed (tilted and folded) by the forces of Earth's internal heat engine.
Information about Simon Winchester's delightful biography of Smith, The Map That Changed the World is available at Tree-Ring dating is based on the principle that the growth rings on certain species of trees reflect variations in seasonal and annual rainfall.
Cross-dating is a technique used to take advantage of consistencies in stratigraphy between parts of a site or different sites, and objects or strata with a known relative chronology.There, you will find a brief description of the method, plus links to take you to other webpages with more extensive information.Dating is not necessary to demonstrate that evolution is a fact.William "Strata" Smith, a civil engineer and surveyor, was well acquainted with areas in southern England where "limestone and shales are layered like slices of bread and butter." His hobby of collecting and cataloging fossil shells from these rocks led to the discovery that certain layers contained fossils unlike those in other layers.Using these key or index fossils as markers, Smith could identify a particular layer of rock wherever it was exposed.